Richard Kline, ASC - Photo by D. Kirkland
“My father and two uncles were cinematographers, so you might say cinematography is in my genes. Critics often praise cinematographers for their beautiful imagery, but our important role is to enhance storytelling to visually punctuate and accentuate the narrative film. It is an art and no two cinematographers do things exactly the same way. You learn new things every day whether you are a slate boy or an Oscar®-winning cinematographer. Every film that I have worked on is my favorite. I think motion pictures are a form of today’s literature, like books. They can educate as well as entertain us.”
Richard Kline, ASC earned Oscar® nominations for Camelot and King Kong, and a 2006 Lifetime Achievement Award from his peers in the American Society of Cinematographers. His credits include The Boston Strangler, The Andromeda Strain, Soylent Green, Who’ll Stop the Rain, Star Trek: The Motion Picture and Body Heat.
[All these films were shot on Kodak motion picture film.]
A Conversation with Richard Kline, ASC
by Bob Fisher
A CONVERSATION WITH RICHARD KLINE, ASC
QUESTION: We understand that you are a second-generation cinematographer.
KLINE: My father was Benjamin Kline (ASC). He shot his first film, The Red Lane, at Universal Studios in 1920. That is where he met my mother who was a paymaster at the studio. Two of my uncles were also cinematographers – Phil Rosen (ASC) was one of the founders and the first president of the American Society of Cinematographers (ASC), and my mother’s brother, Sol Halperin (ASC), was a two-time president of the organization. I am the fourth member of my family to belong to ASC. I guess cinematography is in my genes.
QUESTION: Tell us about your father.
KLINE: The Hollywood studios all had writers, actors, directors and cinematographers under contract. My father started at Universal, but he was under contract at Columbia Pictures for most of his career. He worked on film noir movies before they were in fashion. He shot Detour in six days in 1945. It was directed by Edgar Ulmer with something like a $35,000 budget. That film is now considered a cult classic. When television came along, my father shot Wagon Train, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, The Virginian, Dragnet and other series for 14 or 15 years until he was well into his 70s.
QUESTION: Did you get to watch him work and talk with him about cinematography?
KLINE: Occasionally I would visit a set when I was very young, and I remember thinking his job was interesting and important. The back lots were intriguing. They covered 40, 60 or 80 acres with believable sets. I was close to my father, even though he worked very long hours, six days a week. He was a loving and salty character and amassed over 300 feature credits, plus his many years filming top-notch television.
QUESTION: Those were different times in Hollywood.
KLINE: Yes. Many people spent their entire careers at one studio. It was like a family. You worked with the same actors, directors, and production designers on one picture after another. In those days, cinematographers came to the set dressed in suits and (Rudolph) Rudy Maté (ASC) used to tell a story that, as a joke, the grips playfully sneaked double-head nails in his coat pocket one day knowing that he would find them when he went home. However, that day after work he was summoned to the office of the head of Columbia Pictures where he was read the riot act about something he did. Rudy started to perspire, reached in his pocket for a handkerchief and some of the nails fell out onto the floor. When the executive saw that, he screamed and accused Rudy for stealing his nails on top of everything!
QUESTION: Do you have any memories to share of visiting your father on the set?
KLINE: I remember visiting my father’s sets and meeting actors and his crewmembers, but I was too young to truly understand what they represented.
QUESTION: Did you think that you wanted to follow in your father’s footsteps?
KLINE: No, though I had a feel for still photography and even had a darkroom. My goal then was to become a lawyer – I really don’t recall why.
QUESTION: Where did you go to high school?
KLINE: I attended University High School in West Los Angeles. I took summer courses enabling me to graduate when I was only 16 ½ years old. I should mention that one of my classmates was the legendary Marilyn Monroe, then known as Norma Jean Mortensen. Also, successful actor Richard Anderson was the student body president.
QUESTION: What did you do after you graduated?
KLINE: I graduated during the summer of 1943 while World War II was going on, and I knew that I would be drafted when I reached 18. Many studio personnel were serving in the military, so there were openings at the studio. My father urged me to take a camera job at Columbia Pictures where I started as the slate boy on the film Cover Girl. The famous Rudy (Rudolph) Maté was the cinematographer and Burnie (Burnett) Guffey, later to become a two-time Academy Award-winning cinematographer, was then the camera operator.
QUESTION: That sounds like an excellent film school.
KLINE: The best school is the film you are working on. You learn new things every day whether you are a slate boy or an Oscar®-winning cinematographer.
QUESTION: How long did it take you to become an assistant cameraman?
KLINE: While working on Cover Girl, I spent every spare moment in Columbia’s camera department learning about cameras, of which there were only three at that time; the standard Mitchell, the Mitchell BNC and the hand-held Eyemo. There was also the three-strip Technicolor camera. After about four months, I became a qualified first assistant cameraman. I worked with different cinematographers, but mainly with George Meehan, who sadly lost his only son in the war and treated and tutored me like a son. I remain forever grateful to him. I enlisted in the Navy in 1944, several months before my eighteenth birthday.
QUESTION: What did you do in the Navy?
KLINE: For my first six months after boot camp, I was stationed at the Photo Science Laboratory in the District of Columbia. Then I was assigned to, of all coincidences, the cruiser USS LOS ANGELES and spent the next year and a half in the Asian Pacific area. We operated out of Shanghai and traveled often to Hong Kong in the south and to Tsing Tao in northern China. I was the ship’s photographer. I also drove the chaplain by Jeep when he visited orphanages and attended to other humanitarian endeavors. It was an important part of my life, and I learned a lot about how other people lived.
QUESTION: You have had a uniquely interesting life. What happened next?
KLINE: I was discharged from the Navy during the summer of 1946. I was planning to enroll as an undergraduate at UCLA and study law. About two weeks after I was discharged, I got a call from Columbia Pictures who heard I was out of the service and had a job for me. They wanted me to go to Acapulco (Mexico) the next day. The film was called The Lady from Shanghai. Orson Welles was the director and he also played a role in the film. Rita Hayworth was one of the stars.
QUESTION: That had to be an interesting experience.
KLINE: There will never be another Orson Welles, an amazing talent. It was invigorating working on a film with him in which he acted and directed. Another highlight was using a yacht that was owned by Errol Flynn, who actually skippered it himself during the shoot. I got to know him quite well, and there will never be another Errol Flynn either. Nobody could ask for a more enlightening experience.
QUESTION: We probably shouldn’t say this, but your life sounds like a movie script, going from one incredible experience to another. What happened next?
KLINE: I was an assistant cameraman on many other interesting projects, including the early days of filmed television programs where I got to work with Karl Freund (ASC) on about a dozen episodes of the I Love Lucy series. He was a colorful character who found a home with Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz after years of shooting important features.
QUESTION: Tell us about the next chapter in your career.
KLINE: I worked consistently for about two years on projects at Columbia Pictures. Then, there was a slow down in the industry, and I was on the lower end of the Union’s seniority list. I decided to use the G.I. Bill of Rights to go to college. I found out that I was entitled to go to school anyplace in the world, and they would pay for my tuition and living expenses. I chose to study fine arts and art history in Paris. The G.I. Bill even paid for a tutor who taught me to speak French. I studied at the Sorbonne (University of Paris) for three years, 1949, 1950 and 1951. It truly broadened my view of the world, especially the artistic world.
QUESTION: What did you do when you came back to the United States?
KLINE: I returned to Columbia Pictures as a first assistant and after six months advanced to camera operator. I remained a camera operator for 10 years and worked on pictures with ‘Jimmy’ (James Wong) Howe (ASC), including The Old Man and the Sea. I was also a camera operator for Burnie Guffey, Henry Freulich (ASC), Ray June (ASC), Harry Stradling, Sr. (ASC), ‘Curly’ (Lionel) Linden (ASC), (Charles C.) ‘Bud’ Lawton (ASC), Joseph Walker (ASC) and Charlie Lang (ASC), and others. They were all a learning experience.
QUESTION: This is an unfair question, but what did you learn during that period?
KLINE: No two cinematographers were alike and I especially learned how each used cross, back and fill lighting. Burnie Guffey tended to use less fill light and Bud Lawton used more. Charlie Lang was one of the greatest of them all, particularly in his ability to use diffusion while lighting women. Joe Walker was a master at the art of choosing exactly the right optics and the precise placement of lights, especially when filming women.
QUESTION: Cinematographers are transparent to the public and most critics, but all of you affect how audiences experience films. At least that’s our impression.
KLINE: No movie should be about cinematography alone. We are considered visual storytellers. Our job is to enhance the story and accentuate and punctuate important moments by incorporating tricks of the lighting trade, and without getting caught at it.
QUESTION: When and how did you transition into shooting films?
KLINE: In 1963, while working as a camera operator in Italy with Phil Lathrop (ASC) on the first Pink Panther, I received a telegram from director John Frankenheimer, with whom I had worked two years prior as camera operator on Birdman of Alcatraz. I remember exactly what the telegram said: ‘I am starting a picture and want you to be my cinematographer ... repeat … cinematographer. Call me immediately.’ I showed it to Phil Lathrop and director Blake Edwards, who told me to go to his office and call right away. I did and Frankenheimer told me the picture was Seven Days in May. I told him I would finish in Italy in three weeks, and John said three weeks was fine. When I returned to Los Angeles, John regrettably told me that he couldn’t swing it. The production company didn’t want to gamble with a new cameraman. I was disappointed and pouted for about a week until I received a phone call from the head of the camera department at MGM. He said there was a producer who wanted to meet me and advised me to take the time. I met the producer. His name was Bill Froug. He told me he had produced a television pilot and wanted my opinion, and had arranged for a screening. It was called Mr. Novak. I viewed it then reported back to Froug, telling him that I was very impressed. He asked if I wanted to be the cinematographer. I was taken by surprise and told him that I was just recovering from a professional disappointment and asked if he was truly in a position to elevate me. He said, ‘All I have to do is pick up the phone.’ I quickly said, ‘Pick it up!’ I later asked how he happened to select me. He said that he called three of his favorite directors and asked each of them to name camera operator’s who they would consider elevating to cameraman. They all named me as their first choice. I shot the Mr. Novak series for two seasons. It wasn’t renewed in the third year. After that, I shot eight TV pilots. The last one didn’t sell, but Warner Bros. decided to make it into a feature and called it Chamber of Horrors. While filming an additional two weeks of added scenes for that film, I got another lucky break. Josh Logan was preparing to direct Camelot for the studio, the biggest production of that year. He accidentally walked into a projection room while Chamber of Horrors’ dailies were being screened. He liked what he saw and asked who was doing the cinematography?
QUESTION: Conrad Hall (ASC) would call that a happy accident. What happened next?
KLINE: Serendipity at its best followed! One day I noticed somebody standing on the set while we were filming. It was Josh Logan. He stood there and watched for about 20 minutes before introducing himself to me. To be truthful, I wasn’t that familiar with the theater, so I didn’t know who Josh Logan was. He wanted to discuss a film he was going to be shooting. I told him I was too busy to talk. He asked if I could come back tomorrow, which was Saturday. After about an hour of conversation on that Saturday, Josh Logan offered me an opportunity to shoot Camelot.
QUESTION: Did you realize that you were working on something special?
KLINE: Of course, and I enjoyed every moment. The production designers were Edward Carrere and John Truscott. John was also the costume designer and won an Oscar for that. I was surrounded by gifted artists, including Josh and the cast. Jack Warner took me under his wing and was very supportive. We started filming the picture in Spain, but shot most of it on sets on the Warner Bros. lot.
QUESTION: Did it go smoothly from the beginning?
KLINE: Every film has its share of surprises and Camelot was no exception. After many months of preparation, we started filming in Spain. I felt the right look for Camelot was a muted color palette, and, to achieve this look and not soften the images, I pre-exposed the negative using a white card. Frank Stanley, my assistant, who later became a talented ASC cinematographer, and I would do the pre-exposing each morning, an hour before the company call. It was a painstaking operation and Frank was very careful as he rewound and marked the exact start and end frames that we pre-exposed. While filming in Spain, I received an encouraging telegram from Jack Warner almost each day, happy with the dailies he was viewing at the studio. But, when we returned from Spain to Hollywood, Jack Warner came charging onto the set and demanded to know what I was doing to his film. I asked him, ‘What do you mean? You were sending me telegrams saying you loved the look.’ He told me that he heard I was doing something dangerous to the negative. Some executives told him that I was ruining the film because the colors weren’t Technicolor vivid. I explained what we were doing and why, and asked him to come to the set at 6:00 a.m. and he could see for himself. He calmed and said that wasn’t necessary and that I should just keep doing what I was doing -- he’d take care of the worriers. He remained very supportive and often invited me to his house for tennis and his parties. He truly treated me well.
QUESTION: Where did the idea of pre-exposing the negative come from?
KLINE: I read about it as an experiment that Freddie Young (BSC) did in England.
QUESTION: You earned your first Oscar nomination for Camelot. You followed that film the next year with a Western called Hang ‘Em High, and a very scary film, The Boston Strangler. You couldn’t find two more different films than Camelot if you tried. How did you prepare to film The Boston Strangler?
KLINE: The director was Richard Fleischer, and the acclaimed Richard Day was the production designer, along with a brilliant concept artist named Fred Harpman. During preproduction, we went to Boston and retraced the strangler’s crimes, led by the police detective assigned to the case and who actually caught him. One of the most interesting things we learned was that everyone liked and respected Albert DeSalvo, who was the strangler. His neighbors and friends loved and trusted him. He was the guy they called to solve problems and fix things that were broken. They had no idea that he was the Boston Strangler, which made him more frightening. Knowing all we learned first-hand about the backdrop and the facts, added a dimension to the set ups and cinematography. The main credit belongs to Richard Fleischer, a great visual director who put it all together.
QUESTION: Where did you actually shoot this film?KLINE: Mostly in Boston in the middle of a freezing winter with Tony Curtis and Henry Fonda in the leading roles. Tony played the Boston Strangler. We did some interesting things by optically compositing panels, each containing action sequences within the main frame. It was an anamorphic format movie, so we could have as many as six or seven panels within one frame showing different related actions happening at the same time. The panels were different sizes and shapes, some were just sliver sized.
QUESTION: How about an example?
KLINE: In a panel on the lower left of the frame, Tony Curtis drives up to an apartment building, parks and gets out. Another panel appears in the middle of the frame showing him walking to the apartment’s row of mailboxes where he begins randomly ringing doorbells. Other panels appear and disappear showing people reacting differently to his doorbell ringing, but, one panel remains and enlarges featuring a lady ironing clothes in her apartment. She answers and buzzes him in. Tony appears in a new panel ominously mounting steps, arriving at the door of his next victim, the ironing lady, while in her panel we see her cautiously letting him enter, and the rest of the drama takes place full frame. This technique is often used today utilizing digital compositing, a technique more immediate and much less complicated.
QUESTION: Is it fair to ask in retrospect what you learned from that experience?
KLINE: The Boston Strangler film taught me how to make the audience look at a precise area of the screen. As a metaphor, I had a tennis coach who stressed not only keeping your eye on the ball, but a specific spot of the ball. He said, ‘Imagine the ball with a face, two eyes, a nose, a mouth and two ears, and go for that. If you want a flat ball, you hit right on the ball’s nose. If you want a slice, you hit either ear, and on the chin for an undercut spin, and so on.’ It’s the same with cinematography; to manipulate the audience’s eyes to a precise area on screen, we can use a color value, a light or dark density, a certain lens with a specific quality, camera placement, art direction, wardrobe selection, placement of light, sharp or soft focus, and a ton of other tricks.
QUESTION: That’s a good example of something cinematographers do that goes unnoticed by the public and also by film critics.
KLINE: Most critics tend to praise cinematographers for beautiful pictures, but our real job is to set a mood along with visually punctuating the story, and it has to be done seamlessly without drawing attention.
QUESTION: You have met more than a few interesting people. Some of them became famous and others are unsung heroes. Tell us a bit about an unsung hero.
KLINE: Most people have forgotten about or never heard of Ed Di Giulio. I first met Ed in 1969 when he was a chief engineer for Mitchell Camera. I was preparing to shoot a film called Gaily, Gaily with Norman Jewison directing. We needed a special handheld, reflex camera. Ed modified one for me. He eventually founded a company called Cinema Products, which brought the CP16 16 mm reflex camera to the marketplace. He also recognized the importance of the Steadicam that Garrett Brown was developing. Ed helped to bring it to the marketplace.
QUESTION: You shot The Andromeda Strain, another memorable film early in your career in collaboration with another great director.
KLINE: The Andromeda Strain was an avant-garde, science-fiction film, different than anything else that I had done. It was my first film with Bob Wise, who was one of the most talented directors in film history. He mastered every facet of filmmaking. I loved working with him, and learned a lot. We had a brilliant and meticulous art director named Boris Levin. It was also the first time I worked with Douglas Trumbull, now considered a visual effects giant.
QUESTION: We would like to talk about some of your earlier films. Please share some memories of Hammersmith is Out (1972), a story about a demented mental patient.
KLINE: That was another film I truly enjoyed being a part of. We shot in Mexico. Peter Ustinov was the director. The stars were Richard Burton, Elizabeth Taylor and Beau Bridges. Richard and Elizabeth’s workday, by contract, was limited and they weren’t available to rehearse. So Peter, truly an actor’s director, and I would block lengthy fluid shots before the Burtons came on the set in the mornings, and they were always comfortable with our blocking.
QUESTION: How did you light them in that situation?
KLINE: I carried the fill light, the gaffer handheld the keylight, and the grips floated scrims wherever necessary. We flowed with Elizabeth and Richard’s positions and moves wherever they went. They loved working that way and proved to me that floating lights can work, a technique I sometimes still use.
QUESTION: We have been talking about the importance of collaborations between cinematographers and directors, but you also need to establish that rapport with actors.
KLINE: It is all about trust. I believe that actors are the most important part of any film. They must be lit properly for the roles they play. I shot a film called A Dream of Kings (1969) with Anthony Quinn and Irene Papas in the leading roles. Irene was supposed to look haggard and asked if I could light her to achieve that look. I told her we’ve made her makeup and wardrobe intentionally unflattering, and I will light her correctly, but it’s her performance that must really make it work. After seeing dailies, she agreed and thanked me.
QUESTION: You also shot Soylent Green (1973) which made an indelible impression.
KLINE: That was another Richard Fleischer film. He was a very talented and hard working director who has never gotten the recognition that he deserves. Soylent Green was an avant-garde story set in the year 2022. It was a dark time when human beings were being harvested as food. We were blessed with an incredible cast, including Charlton Heston, Edward G. Robinson and Joseph Cotten. We had to create a polluted world with a smoggy, overcast look. I did a lot of testing and settled on using a huge box built in front of the lens that contained a bilious, greenish haze and a little fan that would softly blow the created atmosphere. That was part of getting the look, but some scenes utilized postproduction techniques also. We mostly shot on the back lot at MGM. It was very run down which lent itself to the depressed story.
QUESTION: Where did the idea for the box in front of the lens come from?
KLINE: I have used all types of diffusion and filters in front of the lens for years, and this idea was a unique way of filtering the film’s exceptional look.
QUESTION: A few years later, you shot Mandingo (1975) with the same director.
KLINE: Richard Fleisher invited me to join him again and film Mandingo, a film dealing with a dark time in American history. The story, set in 1840, was about an owner who trained a slave to be a bare-knuckle fighter. We filmed it in a very cooperative, historical New Orleans, and even painted paved streets to appear cobblestone, an amazing work of movie-making art. Richard and I shared mutual input, avoided being exploitive and made a very visually interesting film.
QUESTION: We are just picking films at random from your incredible body of work. How about sharing some memories from Battle for the Planet of the Apes (1973)?
KLINE: That was a second sequel to the original film about a conflict between human beings and civilized apes. We had to be consistent with what the characters and the world looked like in the two earlier films. We shot it on the back lot at 20th Century Fox on sets that were constructed for the first two films, and also the Fox Ranch. J. Lee Thompson was a marvelous director, and we had an outstanding cast and crew. It was an enjoyable experience.
QUESTION: Your belief in the collaborative process is a common thread in the fabric of this discussion. Do you have any thoughts to share about that?
KLINE: Making a film is like being part of a family that does everything together from when you wake up in the morning until you go to sleep at night. I have always been close with the director and his production personnel, and to my crews, especially the camera operators, assistants, gaffers and grips. It’s a family affair. No one makes a film alone that is worth seeing.
QUESTION: Please share a memory about The Terminal Man (1974).
KLINE: Mike Hodges was the director and George Segal was cast in the leading role. The script was written by Michael Crichton who also wrote The Andromeda Strain. We shot it on color film, but created a monochromatic look by avoiding blue skies or colors in nature. Everything, including wardrobe and art direction, was black, grey or white, although I periodically sneaked a very subtly colored object into scenes as a way of subconsciously reminding the audience that colors are missing. The final scene was a cemetery sequence where, for the first time, we used vivid colors that exploded off the screen. Again, no one does it alone and Fred Harpman, the production designer, deserves a lot of the credit.
QUESTION: You earned an Oscar® nomination for King Kong (1976). What are some of your memories of that film?
KLINE: When Dino De Laurentiis asked if I was interested in working with him on King Kong, my first thoughts were that it was going to be a huge technical challenge. There were miniatures, animatronics and visual effects which had to be seamlessly blended with live-action cinematography. I spent a year on the film and worked with a blend of talented Italian and Hollywood personnel. The film had many glitches, and we circumvented all of them except for a challenging 60-foot tall Kong that never worked. Most of our scenes with Kong were filmed with the now renowned Rick Baker inside an ape costume. It was extremely hot and uncomfortable for him. He was a real trooper.
QUESTION: Body Heat (1981) is another memorable film that we wanted to ask about.
KLINE: It was a very demanding, but rewarding assignment and Larry Kasdan’s directorial debut. Seeking a fresh look, he found Kathleen Turner. It was her first role in a film. The male star was William Hurt. We were supposed to shoot in New Jersey, but were delayed because of an Actors Guild strike. By the time the strike was over, the weather had turned against us in New Jersey and Larry moved the production to Miami, which turned out to be one of Miami’s coldest winters. We shot for 40 straight exterior nights from sunset to sunrise. The story called for a steamy, sweaty, hot summer and the poor actors were freezing wearing only lightweight, summer wardrobe. Among many memorable scenes, there is an emotionally charged seduction encounter that we planned to cover with the then newly-introduced Steadicam. But we made a quick decision that the Steadicam felt too slick and switched to shooting with a standard handheld camera, the old fashioned way. The desired unsteadiness enhanced the sensual tension, a scene that is often talked about today.
QUESTION: What’s the moral of that anecdote?
KLINE: The newest technology isn’t always the best solution. Trust your instincts.
QUESTION: We could go on and ask you about all 50-plus films that you shot as a cinematographer. You also worked as an assistant and operator on another 40 films. You have a remarkably diverse list of credits. Do you have a personal favorite or favorites?
KLINE: I’ve actually worked on over 300 films, including my eight years as an assistant cameraman and ten years as a camera operator. In fact, during just a six year period as a camera operator, I worked for the producer Sam Katzman and we filmed 108 features, ranging from six to 12 days each, six days a week. As a cinematographer, every film that I have worked on is my favorite for one reason or another. But just as important, where else do you meet people like those in this industry? As an example, we spoke earlier about The Lady From Shanghai that was directed by Orson Welles. We spent two months in Acapulco, one month in San Francisco and two months on stages at Columbia Pictures. In Acapulco, we used Errol Flynn’s yacht, and he came along as the skipper. Errol Flynn and Orson Welles were quite a pair. There was never a dull moment. What also kept things lively was the constant bickering between Orson and studio production manager Jack Fier. On the next-to-final day of filming, it appeared that Orson was going to get the last word when he personally painted a huge banner that he hung outside the stage. It read: ‘There Is Nothing To Fear But Fier Himself.’ But, Fier topped him with his own banner the next day, the final day of filming that read: ‘All’s Well That Ends Welles.’
QUESTION: You must have young people who want to become filmmakers ask you for advice about launching their careers. How do you respond?
KLINE: I tell them you can have all the natural talent in the world, and the personality that it takes to get along with people and collaborate, but you also have to be willing to stick it out, and make every chance you get count. You can’t afford the luxury of getting discouraged.
QUESTION: Is filmmaking pure entertainment, or does it play a broader role in society?
KLINE: I saw A Raisin in the Sun on television a year ago. I was the camera operator on that film early in my career. It had a wonderful cast and the dialog and theme was rich and poignant. Films like that can educate as well as entertain. In my opinion, motion pictures are now considered a form of today’s literature.
QUESTION: We understand that you are venturing into a new arena.
KLINE: Yes, writing and directing my own material. It’s something that I’ve had on my mind for many years and waited until I was at a point in my life where I felt comfortable concentrating on scriptwriting. In some ways it’s like cinematography, only writing with words on paper instead of just with images on film. It’s now my goal to become the oldest, ‘rookie’ director.
QUESTION: Are you still working as a cinematographer?
KLINE Scriptwriting currently deserves my full attention, however in an earlier question about my father and uncles, I stated that ‘cinematography is in my genes,’ and I will now add: ‘and will always be a part of my career.
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